Thursday, July 16, 2009



Dr K Prabhakar Rao

.Rudrama Devi ( 1262.1296) shines gloriously in the medieval history of South India. She was the only child of King Ganapathi Dava who ruled at Warangal the capital of Kakateeya Dynasty that had sway over entire Tenagana ( Present Andhra Pradesh State) during 13 th century. She was brought up as a male child and she mastered all the martial arts and traits of administration of the kingdom. She was married to a prince named Veera bhadra from Nidavolu who claimed origin from Chalukya kings. Ganapati Deva after taking advice from the illustrious Prime Minister Sivadevayya nominated Rudrama Devi as his successor in his last days . This was no doubt resented by some nobles and her cousins who later raised banner of revolt. Veera Bhadra also was jealous of Rudrmadevi ruling the land. She succeeded her father after his death in 1262 wore male attire and sat on the throne and with iron hand ruled the kingdom keeping the enemies at bay. Pandyas and Cholas from the south Indian peninsula were also great threat and she kept them at bay with great vigour. After her accession she had to fight Harihara deva and Murarideva the cousins who revolted against the lady ruler. She also disciplined Amba eva who revolted against her rule. She had some efficient nobles like Jaganni deva and Gona Ganna reddy who helped her greatly in suppressing revolts. She worshipped goddesses. Bhadrakali, Ekaveera and Padmakshi.She captured important forts like Mulikinadu, Renadu, Eruva,Mutthapi nadu, Satti.
Rudramadevi defeated Mahadeva Raja the Yadava ruler of Devagiri ( Daulatabad in Aurangabad District at present in Maharashtra state)who invaded Warangal ( earlier known as Orugallu or Ekasilanagaramu) fort, the capital of Kakateeya empire and chased him away. She crossed Godavari chasing the yadava ruler right into his territories and forced him to make peace. The Devagiri King had to pay great amount of ransom to the queen and made peace. As a real queen she distributed the wealth among her troops most graciously. This is one of the grand victories of the queen. The queen had no much time to pursue arts and literature during her reign. After the death of Rudramadevi most probably in a battle, Prataparudradeva II ( 1296-1323) son of her daughter Mummadamma succeeded to the throne. In fact Muslim invasions on South India started during his reign. Rudrama Devi was one of the most outstanding queens in Indian History from Kakateeya dynasty and people still cherish her memories.


1. Malayasree, Kakateeyula kalam nati samajika jeevitham ( Social life during the reign of Kakateeya kings, Hyderabad book trust, 1-1-342/B Vivek nagar, Hyderabad. 500020, AP,
2 Etukuri Balaram. Andhrula Samkshipta Charithra,( A brief History of Andhras) Visalandhra Publications, Hyderabad, AP, India

Dr K Prabhakar Rao

Monday, July 13, 2009


Prof Dr Colonel ( Retired) K Prabhakar Rao

( Gandhi, Nehru and Patel are seen walking on a street in Hyderabad. They are in their usual dress and Gandhi is seen singing Ramdhun.. Raghupati raghava Raja raam …)

Nehru. Bapu. The sky is cloudy and is also dark. It may rain heavily. Let us go fast from here. You can sing later.

Gandhi. Come on Jawahar. Are you scared of rain?

Nehru. No. No. It is not like that. We may get caught in traffic jam soon

Patel. Hee…heee..Bapu. Nehru is correct some times

Gandhi. Look Guys. Listen. The sky has been like this many times since many days . But there were no rains. June is over. Now we are in July. There is no sight of rains.

Nehru. True Bapu. You are always true. ( Sings)

Truth is our Bapu
And Bapu is truth
If any guy disputes
Sure to loose his tooth

Gandhi… What a nice poem.. love it.

Patel. The CM last time in his election meetings said the State received very good rains for 5 years because the Gods were very happy with him and his rule. Hope he has direct contact with Gods. He may be having video conferences with him. heee…heee

Gandhi. Heee..hee.. Yes He said. Now what he would tell?

Patel. What he can tell? He can not tell any thing. He has to tell that there are no rains now because Gods are un happy with him haa…haa..heee..hee ( Sings and does jig while Gandhi struggles to continue his Ramdhun while listening)

Dear What he can tell?
When we are here in this pell mell
City traffic is a dirtiest well
We are all struggling in this shitty hell

Gandhi. Well said. How Gods can be angry with in three months? He formed government recently. Gods might be unhappy with him now and even earlier. So no rains. heee…hee( sings)

There are many clouds but no rain
It is causing all great pain
So be happy with whatever you had
Instead of getting crazy and mad

Patel. Well said Bapu Nice poem indeed

Gandhi. Ha..Haa..Haa. I am a born poet you know. Some how I did not receive much attention in this field.

Patel. Naidu received all attention.

Nehru. I know Bapu .. Bapu, let us cross road quickly. Not many vehicles are coming this way

( They try to cross over the cement partitions that are kept as dividers. Gandhis Dhoti gets stuck to a protruding iron rod and he gets stuck with one leg an each side of cement block. Nehru and Patel jump over the block)

Gandhi. Bacho..bacho.. I am stuck

( In the mean time a motorcyclist arrives at great speed and runs over Gandhis foot.. Gandhi yells inpain)

Gandhi.. eeee..eee.. Margaya.. bacho

( Nehru and Patel run to Gandhi and catch hold of the motorcyclist ad Patel slaps him. In the mean time crowd collects)

Patel. You swine. Can’t you see the man stuck here. Is this way you drive ? Why drive at such speed? You are not even 16 years old. Is your father a crack guy who gave bike to you.?

Nehru. Patel. Poor guy. He is a kid. Let him go. He did not see Gandhi.

Patel. What is your name?

Youth. I am Bin Kasim

Patel. Good name ( Scartches his head). I heard this name earlier. Where it can be?

Nehru. You must have read in history book. He was an invader who attacked India in medieval times earlier to Gaznavi and resorted to killings and lootings. He was resisted by Hindu kings.

Patel. Yeah. Now I can recollect. What is there in a name?

Gandhi. ( Still stuck in the block) Patel. Please pardon him. Mistakes are to be done. Eeswar allah tero nam . Sab ko sanmathi de Bhagwan.. Jai… Bolo.. Boy kasim. Please go away.

( The boy starts the bike and zooms away in a second)

Patel.( Holds his head) Ohfo.. What a guy? There is no change in him even after 60 years after his death. What an appeasement? Bapu . You should not have left that guy. We should have taken him to police too. Bapu. I shall tell you one thing. If you stand up in elections now no one will vote for you.

Nehru. I am sure you will not vote for him. My vote is for him only

Gandhi. Relax Guys. Do not make mountain out of a mole

( They slowly pull out Dhoti ( Loin cloth) of Gandhi and take him out and Gandhi feels relieved. They cross over and stand at footpath where some other guys are also standing. There is an old bus shelter near them that has many holes in its sheet roof. There is also a small tea vender there and Patel gets three cups of tea)

Patel. Bapu. Have tea. You must be tired

Gandhi. Sure. I am tired too. Ask him whether he made tea with goat’s milk

Patel. Bapu. What a fad. Does any one make tea with goat’s milk? People will laugh if I ask him.

Gandhi. That is OK. Tea is fine( Sips tea)

Nehru. Bapu. Scores of people make living by selling tea. Have you seen the size of cup? It is so small. We have to call it a cup. It costs Rs 3/cup

Patel. I am sure by next year the cup would further reduce in size and shape. Finally the guy offers tea in spoons. First in table spoon and then tea spoon. He will pour tea with spoons in the mouths of people, like fish medicine that is offered in Hyderabad.. Heee…heee…heee

Gandhi. These plastic cups must go. I shall invent a Khadi cup soon. Many can make living by making these cups. It would become a cottage industry. Any how what is this fish medicine. Looks strange

Patel. Bapu. There is a family in Hyderabad and every year at a particular time of the year they offer some medicine with small baby fish and thousands of people assemble. The medicine along with the fish is thrust in the throats and they gulp.

Nehru. Oh God .. Yeaaaakk…aakku…baaaack… ( He vomits after listening)

Gandhi. Patel. Plesae hold his head and close his ears.

Patel. Most of the time he keeps ears closed. There is no problem with him. He will be better soon. I shall get him some tea

Gandhi. Is this medicine scientific? Does government allow this cock and bull?

Patel. Very well Bapu. They make elaborate arrangements for controlling the crowds. The medicine is not scientifically proved. Government is scared to take any action.

Nehru. India has long history of ancient medicine. All these practitioners of some sort of medicine write Dr in front of their names although they are mere quacks, Some ego satisfaction for them Bapu

Gandhi. True. But they may be playing with lives of people

Patel. Who bothers for such things? Indian lives are very cheap. So many guys get killed in terrorist attacks and the criminals are not brought to justice. They are all well fed in jails never to be punished.
In Hyderabad on the roads some guys pitch tents and sell various herbs and some quacky medicines and people run for them. Government does not bother. Soon such guys also get RMP certificates and practice as doctors..haa…haaa.. Most of these guys lure guys with some sex medicines claiming to improve libido…
Gandhi Why bring that topic now. It is out of context

Patel. Bapu. Please do not run away from truth. It will stare at you wherever you turn.

( In the mean time there is a great rush of wind and all collect under the rickety bus stop. Wind blows at great speed. Suddenly the structure collapses on the people and Gandhi and Nehru are also caught under the debris while Patel escapes. All shout bacho..bacho.)

Patel. Come on guys . help…help

( Some other guys from closeby collect and pull out people and Gandhi is first to come out and next is Nehru)

Gandhi. Eeee…eee.. Why you have pulled me first ? There are many guys within the debris. You should have pulled them out first.

Nehru. Bapu. You would have died if stayed for long

Gandhi . But we are already dead. How can we die again?

Nehru. Ohfo..No.. I forgot about it.

Patel. That is fine. You are out. Let us go from this shitty place.

( In the mean time there is a traffic jam on the road. Lights and signal are also not working. A light mast fell down after the great wind. In the meantime convoy of Chief Ministers convoy arrives and these VIP vehicles also get trapped in traffic jam. Suddenly there is a downpour and entire area gets full of water. The roads become water pools and VIP vehicles also are partly submerged in water. There is an utter chaos. Police does not know what to do. CM is stuck with in vehicle and police are worried about his security)

CM. ( Speaking to his security officer) What next? How do we get out now? There are thousands of vehicles every where and we are in middle. The rain is also heavy. It is cats and dogs. The gods are more happier now.

Officer. Have called for a chopper. It will be here in another five minutes.

CM. Where it will land?

Officer. Sir It can land on our car. We have an exit door in roof of this car. You can get out from it

CM . That is very good.

( Seeing CM in pathetic state Gandhi rushes out and runs to the car and manages to wade through pool of water)

Gandhi. CM Saheb. How are you? This is the effect of bad town planning. There is no traffic sense in Hyderabad. Now you can see for yourself

( CM downs the window glass)

CM. Who are you? You have dressed up like Gandhi. But it is good. You are imitating him well. You deserve some tip. ( He hands over him a Rs two coin)

Gandhi Come on Sir. I am not a beggar. I am real Gandhi. You are insulting me.

CM. You also appear to be a nut too. How can you be real Gandhi? He died long ago. Do not waste my time.

( In the mean time Patel goes to Gandhi and tries to take him out. A chopper has arrived and it slowly lands on the car of CM. Under its weight the roof of the car crashes down and CM is stuck in between.. He cries)

CM.. eee….eeee…aaa…aaa.. Bacho

( In the mean time water level around rises with heavy rain pouring. Water gets in to the car and it is almost half full with water. CM is seen shouting for help. Security officer has already slipped out or trapped under the chopper )

Gandhi. Be brave CM Saheb. We are here to rescue you. Now do you know the value of life?

( Gandhi swings his stick breaks the windshield of the car )

Gandhi. Look CM Saheb. Now come out of the opening of windshield , Look You called by fake Gandhi. Now you are being saved by me.

( CM slowly crawls out. With help of Gandhi and Patel he is pulled out of the car. He is dazed and gasping for air. He is seen shivering in cold and catches cold also. He sneezes too. In the mean time the helicopter pilot helps CM to climb in to helicopter.

Gandhi.. CM Saheb. Think of poor guys outside. Do not sit in marble houses and ivory towers. Have you seen what really happens in Hyderabad after one small rain? Haa…haa

(The CM looks other way and chopper roars and lifts off taking car also with it. Car dangles on to choppers legs)

Patel. Hope Chopper can land safely at some place. God bless him

Gandhi.. Haa…haaaa

Nehru.. Heee…heee

( People stuck in traffic jam enjoy the entire drama and laugh while Gandhi, Nehru and Patel do some jig in water while Gandhi holds his stick atop his head while doing jig )



Sunday, July 5, 2009



Dr K Prabhakar Rao

Saleem the surviving son of Emperor Akbar succeeded to the throne of Mughal empire after the death of his father at the age of 36 years and assumed title Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Khushru-i-Giti Panah, Abu'l-Fath Nuruddin Muhammed Jahnagir Padshah Ghazi on November 3, 1605. Nuruddin means light of the faith and Jehangir means conqueror of world. . He was born on 31 August 1569 August at Fatehpur Sikri the capital of Mughals and died on 28 October 1627 while returning from Kashmir and buried at Shahdra now in Pakistan. In fact, he was much eager to occupy the throne when his father was alive. As per available history he revolted against Akbar when he was out on expedition., Murad and Danial were the other two sons of Akbar who died in Akbar’s life time. Jahangir has been praised by the historians ( ?) as a man of letters with aesthetic sense and patronized arts. He is credited to have written his memoirs Tuzuk. But all was not well with Jahangir. The historians in India as usual have down played his serious negative qualities and portrayed him high glorifying (1). The most important misdeeds of Jahangir are:

1. Jehangir planned viciously to usurp throne from Akbar during the last years of Akbar. He rebelled and proclaimed himself as Emperor at Allahabad in 1600 and made parleys with Portuguese. He planned and got revered Abul Fazal killed near Narwar in 1602 while he was returning from Deccan. Bir Singh Bundela was a Hindu ruler of a province and was friendly to Jahangir. Bir singh was promised favors if he killed Abul Fazal who was a very close noble and advisor to Akbar. Bir Singhs troops attacked the convoy of Abul Fazall when it was passing through his country and after some resistance were over powered and Abul Fazal was slain. His head was cut off and sent to Saleem at Allahabad. Abul Fazal was against Saleem becoming the ruler after Emperor Akbar and hence the tragedy took place. Subsequently Bir Singh was rewarded by elevatiing him to be the commander of 3000 Horse cavalry ( a notable position) and he became the ruler of Orchha.

2.Jehangir faced serious problem from his eldest son Khusroo who rebelled against him who had strained relations with his father even before Jahangir became Emperor. In fact Akbar willed that Khusroo should succeed him. He revolted against father after 5 months of Akbar’s death based on his will. Khusro was however defeated by Jahangir at Jullundhar who led army against his son and also captured him along with important followers. Khusro was imprisoned and it is learnt that he was blinded and he died in prison in 1622 most probably assassinated by the agents of his brother Khurram ( Future Emperor Shahjehan). Fathers and brothers could be so cruel for the sake of power in Mughal dynasty. Blinding was one of the commonest form of immediate punishment among Mughals that makes the victim unfit to become a king.

3. Khusros followers Hussein Beg and Abdul Aziz were enclosed in the skins of cow and ass and were mounted on asses face towards the tails and were paraded round the city. Obviously these victims died in the skins when they dried up (2).He got erected wooden poles along the road leading to Lahore from the fort where Jehangir stayed during the campaign and the followers of Khusro were nailed to each of the pole and they were shown to the prince taken on a dirty elephant while Jahangir enjoyed (3)

4. Jahangir then turned his anger towards Sikh Guru Arjun dev. In fact persecution of Sikhs started with Jahangir. He got the Guru arrested on the charge that he helped Khusro with money and he was harbored. Guru Arjun Dev was most charitable and had holy disposition. In the words of Terry he was “…the very love and delight of them all.” (4).
Jahangir was annoyed with Guru Arjan Dev because he had given an amount of Rs.5000/- to Prince Khushru, the rebel son of Jahangir, when he needed it. When Jahangir questioned Guru Arjan Dev, the Guru justified it on the grounds of his Dharma and gratitude for past kindness received from Emperor Akbar, and not because of his opposition to Jahangir (5). Still Jahangir fined him Rs. 2 lakhs and also ordered Guru Arjan Dev to expunge from the GRANTH SAHIB certain passages opposed to the Mussalmans. Guru stated that his money was meant for the welfare of the poor and so he could not pay even a pie towards the fine imposed in a dictatorial manner by Jahangir. Further Guru Arjan Dev also made it clear that it was not possible to expunge the passages from the GRANTH SAHIB, as the passages he had included in it were not offensive to the sentiments of the Mussalmans. In spite of this reasonable explanation, Jahangir sentenced Guru Arjan Dev to death.
Guru Arjan Dev was made to sit on a hot iron plate and hot sand was showered over his body, and he was boiled in a cauldron. Dabistan-i-Mazhaid, a contemporary Persian Work, mentions of Guru Arjan Dev being deprived of food and water and put into the hot blazing sand and stoned in a savage manner, which caused blood to ooze out of his head. He was thus tortured for five days. With wounds blistering on his body, tied hand and foot, he was thrown into the River Ravi on May 30, 1606. Guru Arjan Dev was barely 43 years old at the time of his martyrdom (6).

This is what Emperor Jahangir himself wrote in his diary called the Tuzk-e-Jahangiri (‘Memoirs of Jahangir’): ‘In Goindwal, which is on the river Biyãh (Beas), there was a Hindu named Arjan Dev, in the garments of sainthood and sanctity, so much so that he had captured many of the simple-hearted of the Hindus, and even of the ignorant and foolish followers of Islam, by his ways and manners, and they had loudly sounded the drum of his holiness. They called him Guru, and from all sides stupid people crowded to worship and manifest complete faith in him. Many times it occurred to me to put a stop to this vain affair or to bring him into the assembly of the people of Islam. At last when Prince Khusrau passed along this road this insignificant fellow proposed to wait upon him. Khusrau happened to halt at the place where he was, and he came out and did homage to him. Arjan Dev behaved to Khusrau in certain special ways, and made on his forehead a finger-mark in saffron, which the Indians (Hinduwän) call qashqa, (Tilak) and is considered propitious. When this came to my ears and I clearly understood his folly, I ordered them to produce him and handed over his houses, dwelling-places, and children to Murtaza Khan, and having confiscated his property commanded that he should be put to death.’

Guru Arjundev was charged with committing treason and was tortured gravely to death not before offering him pardon if he converted to Islam. Guru believed in his own dharma and preferred death to change of faith. Execution of the Guru was the most impolite step by the emperor. This shows the religious bigotry of Jahangir.

5. It is also alleged that Jahangir engineered the murder of Ali quili Beg Istajhi titled Sher Afghan the Jagirdar of Burdwan in 1607. The episode circles around Meherunnissa a beautiful maiden who was married to Sher Afghan . Historians state that Ali Quli received jagir of Burdwan and title Sher afghan from Jehangir in the early years of the emperors’ reign. However Jehangir learnt that Sher Afghan had become insubordinate and therefore he sent Qutubuddin new Governor of Bengal and his foster brother to discipline Sher Afghan. At Burdwan Sher Afghan and Qutubuddin had some serious arguments an in which Qutubuddin was killed. Followers of Qutubuddin immediately hacked Sher Afghan to pieces. They took away Meherunnissa along with her young daughter to Mughals court. Jehangir infatuated with her beauty married her after 4 years and gave her the title of Noor Jehan ( Light of the world) and she became the most important personality in the affairs of the court. Cunningness of the emperor can not be ruled out in the affairs of murder of Sher Afghan although the plot of the emperor and his complicity in the killing of Sher Afghan is not confirmed by any evidence(7).But knowing his weakness towards beautiful women the element of doubt can not be ignored.

6. Religious intolerance of Jahangir that is the hall mark of Mughals can be easily seen after the victory over Kangra fort after a difficult campaign in North Eastern Punjab on 16 November 1620. the Temple of Goddess Jwalamukhi desecrated by killing a cow in the temple and desecrating the idols (8).

7. Jahangir has been described by historians as a kind hearted ruler. He wrote in his memoirs that he killed 28532 animals and birds with his own hands during a span of 32 years from the age of 18 to 50 years. How cruel he could be and had the audacity to declare that people were forbidden to kill for two days in a weak and that cruelty to animals and birds was a sin. His way of hunting was weird.He wrote in his memoirs, “ On the 22 nd when I had got with in shot of a Nilgay suddenly a groom, and two bearers appeared and the nilgaw escaped. In a great rage I ordered them to kill the groom on the spot and to hamstring the bearers and mount them on asses and parade them through the camp..” ( 9)

8. He became famous for a golden chain with a bell that was called a bell of Justice and it is doubtful if ever it was used. Infact Hindu King Ananagapal was the first king to introduce such bell and the pseudo Indian historians to the beat of drums have praised Jahangir as the most innovative. Immediately after assuming power he declared 12 ordinances for better administration and all these are considered as big joke on people from an Emperor who always remained under the influence of liquor and opium. He handed over administration to his wife and brothers in-law while he drowsed himself in liquor and what better administration can be expected of the emperor (10).

9. Jahangir was highly critical of Islamic rituals of rigid fasting in certain months. He drank, ate and made merry with friends and forced those who followed the tenants rigidly at the threat of being made fodder for two lions who were kept caged closed by. Catrous writes, “ When some of his nation of rather rigid principles happened to be present at these meetings, he compelled them to violate their fast, threatening them in case of disobedience with being abandoned to the rage of two lions who were always kept chained under the windows of his apartments( 11).

. Historians wrote that at times he was very furious and enjoyed when some victims were skinned alive while he at times felt pity for the elephants trembling in winter at cold. He has been praised as the collector of paintings and had sense of fine tastes. But he was an opium addict and was drowned in liquor and this surely affected his sense of judgment. In fact he left state matters to his famous wife Noor Jehan and his brother in law who decided most of the matters while he drank and made merryall the time.. Over indulgence in liquor surely and finally affected him and he died after a reign of 22 years on 28 October 1627.


1Jahangir. wikipedia

2.Elliot Vol VI, P 300

3.M V R Shastry, Edi Charitra ( A reappraisal of Ancient and Medieval Indian History Ajo K Vibho Foundation Hyderabad Publication, First Edition 2003 PP 201

4.Terry, Voyage to East India, PP 411

5. RC Majumadar, H C Roy Chaudhry, Kalikinkar Datta, An advanced History of India, Macmillan, New York, 1967, PP 458

6. Guru Arjun Dev , Great sikh Martyr,

7. RC Majumadar, H C Roy Chaudhry, Kalikinkar Datta, An advanced History of India, Macmillan, New York, 1967,

8. K.K Bhardwaj, History of medieval India, Sudha publications, Rajendra Place, , New Delhi, India, Edition V, PP 141

9. Vincent smith, The Oxford History of India, PP 387

10. Iqbal nama I Jehangiri, Elliot and Dawson, Vol VI PP 405 as cited in M V R Shastry, Edi Charitra ( A reappraisal of Ancient and Medieval Indian History Ajo K Vibho Foundation Hyderabad Publication, First Edition 2003 PP 206

11.Catrous, History of Mughal Dynasty, PP 138, 139, Also quoted in Elliot and Dawson, Vol VI, PP 513-514, as cited in M V R Shastry, Edi Charitra ( A reappraisal of Ancient and Medieval Indian History Ajo K Vibho Foundation Hyderabad Publication, First Edition 2003 PP 204

Dr K Prabhakar Rao