Wednesday, February 17, 2010



Dr K Prabhakar Rao

(Gandhi, Nehru and Patel are seen at a roadside tea stall near Telangana Bhavan in Hyderabad. The business is brisk and polythene cups are thrown everywhere. Some stray dogs are seen licking the empty cups.Gandhi gets irked up at the sight. But he is helpless.)

Gandhi. Look Patel. What type of people are these characters? They drink tea in these plastic cups and throw them on the street. They are making the area very dirty.They areshitin fact

Patel. Bapu. Say in low tone. This is India. You gave them freedom 60 years ago to do whatever they like. Freedom means free for all as per India’s definition.

Gandhi. I am much upset at things. Even a dog cleans the area before it sleeps. Even after passing stools it would rub its ass against ground cleans itself. These guys are worst than them.

Patel. Bapu. Say slowly. Even walls have ears

Gandhi. I am not scared. Truth has to be told. By the by what is happening in this building? Why should I be scared? I fought the English men with bare chest ( sings doing jig)

I am the Gandhi with bare chest
And I never wear any vest
English men could not do any thing to me
I shall reform these guys whatever it might be

Patel. Hear ..hear. That is good Bapu.

( In the mean time loud shouts are heard. People are seen shouting Jai Telangana..Jai Jai Telangana… Jo hame takrayega who mitti me miljayega…Hoo……hooo)

Gandhi. What is the commotion in the building?

Nehru. Last night, central government has declared that it has constituted a committee to study the situation in Andhra Pradesh

Gandhi. Does it say that the committee is to study how to bifurcate AP state?

Patel. No . It does not say anything.

Gandhi. Then what does it say?

Patel. It states that the committee would speak to all sections of people in the state and record their findings

Gandhi. All sections means what?

Patel They will speak to Andhrites, Telanganites, Seemites, Muslims, Old city wallahs, Road side hawkers, Shop owners, Taxiwallahs, Autowallahs, Students, Teachers, Professors.. ohfo to all

Gandhi. How about barbers, washer men, rickshaw pullers, Bullock cart drivers, mungphylly street vendors. Chikki sellers, Biscuitwalahs, Knife grinders, vegetable vendors, Fruit vendors, beggars ,pimps and prostitutes?

Nehru. How about Hizras? They are also part of society.

( In the mean time some Hizras arrive from somewhere and go near Bapu . They clap and make gestures at them)

Hizra Sakina. Haye. Mere.. Marjawa… Haye. Aawona;; aah..

Bapu. Chee…cheee. What is this? Patel Save me from these men or women . What should I call?

Patel. Bapu. They are Indians. You gave freedom to them too. They are part of society. Kindly bear with them. Some day one of them may become PM too.

Gandhi. Ohfo.. Why not? All are equal before constitution.

Hijra Sakina. Haye.. Kya Baat Hai… Kahaa jayega mujhe chodkar.. Tadapraheen hun mai… Mere Saajan.. aaahh… Ab Rahna Jayega.. Dekho kaisa mera dil dhak dhak kar raha hai.. Haye…

Gandhi. Jawahar;al Mujhe Bachalo

Nehru. Bapu. What can I do? They are after you and are much impressed too. ( looking at Hijras) look Sakina. Mere Amma. Leave this old man. Yeh Kuch kamahka naheen. Find some one else.

Sakina. Ye baat hai. What is the use of milking a drycow? How about you?

Nehru. Oh No. Not me. My hoo Buddha.

( The Hijras go away clapping, not before hugging Gandhi and making gestures at Nehru)

Patel. Bapu. We side tracked. The committee guys have to speak to rowdy sheeters, pehilwans, dadas, thugs on bail, those in jails too. They are part of society. In fact they are important. They play great part in elections Do you know Bihari leader lalu yadav recently declared that he would give ticket to any one who goes to jail?

Gandhi. I know that.

Nehru. Bapu. The statement does not list out the categories with whom they will interact.

Gandhi. This is very crude way of approaching the problem.

Pate. Hee…heee. The committee may be given time for 6 to 12 months

Gandhi. That means they will have nice time at government cost for so many months.

Patel. He..heee… Haaa.

Gandhi.. haaa..haaaaaa. Good joke on people. The committee will spend crores of public money and probably will come out blank.

Patel. Bapu. Listen. This is a crude joke on people of Telangana. The people have been fooled. ( sings and does jig)

Poor people of Telangana are taken for a ugly camel ride
The leaders in center proved they have very thick hide
People have been fooled to the core
The wounds in their hearts have become very sore

The sacrifices of students are down the dirty Musi river waters that flow
Sparkles in the Telanganites will probably never glow
The committee would soon fool these guys
And the promises at center are surely lies

( People listening to Patel also do jig and clap loudly. In the mean time some people rush out of the building followed by few men who are seen to be furious. The police personnel present at the site suddenly become active and reach the crowd. They try to reduce the gathering)

Inspector. Come on guys. Move out from this place. This is getting crowdy.

Patel. We are not doing any thing. We are just listening and watching things.

Inspector. No arguments. We are final guys. All should listen to us.

Patel. Hee…heee

Inspector. What is there to laugh?

Patel. There is nothing.

IOnspector. Am I looking like a buffoon?

Patel. I did not say that.

Inspector. Then why you are laughing? Better behave. You are speaking to Andhra Police.

Patel. So you are not Andhra Pradesh Police.

Inspector. ( scratches head and appears confused)

Patel. Oh Bhai. Jara thanda dimakh ka istemal karo ( Oh brother please use your cool head). You guys should not become tools in the hands of these politicians and crooks. In fact you guys should discipline those guys who chased some people from the building, not we sipping tea at tea stall.

( Inspector scratches his head removing his cap)

Inspector. I think what you said is true.

Patel. I always tell truth.

Inspector. In that case I shall show what I am to these guys.

( Inspector orders police men to catch hold of the guys who came chasing some from the building. Soon such guys are rounded up)

Inspector. Who are you? Why are you chasing some people?

( There are some leaders in the guys who were caught by police)

Leader Enkanna . I am Enkanna yadav , of dongala puram constituency Why you have detained me? Don’t you know me? How dare?

Inspector. I know only law. I do not recognize you. Not required too. Why are you involved in violence and unruly behavior?

( The leader gets shock of his life)

Leader Enkanna. Are you speaking through your hat? Don’t you want to serve police force? I shall see.

Inspector. What you shall see. See now. I am in front of you. Bewakoof kainka. Boltha hai Dekhloonga. Kya Dekhlega. Mera sar.. Uloo kainka

( the leader gets upset . but he is helpless and the police constables push him into a van along with some other guys. They are taken away soon)

Gandhi. Patel. This inspector was much influenced by your talk. Appears to be a good guy.

Patel. But Bapu. Such guys can not last long. Son he will be shown the gate by the police senior officers.

Gandhi. Over my dead body. I shall fight for him.

Patel. How?

Gandhi. Patel. By the by what was the problem in the building?

Patel. Bapu. Inside the building there was a discussion over the committee and its purpose. All the rebel leaders were there. The hard core guys rejected the committee and asked all the leaders to resign in protest

Gandhi. Now I understand . Many guys do not want to resign. It is hard earned seat. They spent crores of rupees to win and not yet made money through various grants. If they resign they shall loose every thing.

Patel. If the leaders from opposition parties resign what will happen/ Nothing will happen to the state government. They want congress leaders from Telangana to resign.

Nehru. That they will never do except one or two.

Patel. They know well that if they resign they will never get party ticket next time.

Nehru. Hee..heee. A bunch of selfish men masquerading as patriots.

Patel. Jawaharal. Finally you came with truth.

Nehru Look . I always speak truth

Patel. Thanks

Gandhi. Well done. Then what happened

Patel. When the ruling party leaders from Telangana refused to resign they were kicked out of the building by the hard core guys.

Gandhi. Now I understand. Well done guys. The ruling guys want to take credit without sacrificing for Telangana. They deserve such action.

Patel. Hee.. heee ( sings and does fast jig)

These ruling guys deserved such fate
Such selfish guys I always hate
They should be shown the door soon
While Telangana emerges out of moon

(The on lookers clap loudly and appreciate the song and congratulate Patel)

Gandhi. Look Patel. It is time we leave this place. Soon some police force would come and do lathi charge or even firing. Better we leave. Soon police guys may use machine guns or rocket launchers on public. I am afraid one day they will enact Jallianwallah Bagh in Osmania university campus.

Nehru. True Who could be Michael Odayer, and General Dyer? Bapu. Let us go.

Patel. True, You shall know soon. First let us run away from here

(The trio sing Ramdhun and rapidly walk away from the scene)


Friday, February 12, 2010



Dr K Prabhakar Rao

( Gandhi, Bapu and Patel are seen at Shivaji terminal in Mumbai. They are in usual dress Gandhi is seen singing Raghupathi raghava Raja ram…. And other two guys are seen clapping and nodding heads. There is great rush at the station and there are many shiv sainiks on the platform)

Gandhi. Patel.I find great rush. There is no place to even stand properly

Nehru. True Bapu.Just now a guy has stamped on my foot. It is paining. Eee..eee…aaa…aaa. baaa.. Mar gaya..

Patel. Come on Jawaharlal. You were PM of India for 16 years. Be bold and do not cry

Nehru. Saying is easy. If that guy has stamped on you then you will know

Patel. I wish he does. I am iron man of India ( sings and does fast jig)

I am the iron man strong an stout
However I lost all my clout
Yet I shall take care of erring men
My deeds will be known with a pen

( Some people on platform gather around Patel while he does jig. They clap and shout.. yah..yah… Bahut atche… Keep doing old man. A shiv sainik Tukaram Pandu approaches Patel)

Tukaram. Mere Bhai. I am tukaram Pandu, Who are you? Why are you here? You do not look like a Maharashtrian.

Patel. Well said. I am a Gujrati.

Tukaram. Why are you here? You are already old. Have you come for sight seeing?

Patel.There are two more men with me. We have come to Bombay just like that. ( sings)

Look my dear friend
All of us are on an errand
Also know we are all bald and bold
You guys on us can never have hold

Tukaram.Is that so, Strange. First say Mumbai, not Bombay, Why are you wasting money then?

Patel. It is our wish. In which way you are concerned?

Tukaram. In no way. Guys like you are crowding Mumbai. Mumbai is for Maharashtrian not for every one around

Nehru. Bhai. How can you say that?

Tukaram. This way. Mumbai belongs to us only.

Gandhi. It is Ok. It belongs to you. Does it mean that no onefrom outside should come here

Tukaram. Yes. Locals are loosing jobs. They are starving. There so many taxi drivers from outside.

Gandhi. Mere Bhai. This is a democracy. Every one has right to stay any where in India and purchase land

Nehru. Not in Arunachal Pradesh and Kashmir.

Patel. Thanks for your doing of Kashmir

Nehru. What I have done?

Patel . Look . Jawaharlal . It was you who goofed up Kashmir. Look Indians are struggling even today

Nehru. Eee…aaa… I am being blamed ( cries)

Gandhi. Look Jawaharlaal . Do not cry like a woman. Be bold.

Nehru. If you say so it is OK ( He wipes tears with hanky)

Tukaram. Bhai. Is crying over?

Pate You are calling us Bhai on one side and otherside you say we are outsiders

Tukaram. Hee…heee. Sorry by mistake it was said.

Gandhi. We will not go back. What you can do?

Tukaram. Ye baat Hai. Dikhaunga tujhe ( sings)

I am tukaram the strong
From childhood I was drinking Albosong
Look at my strong hand
I shall throw you out of this land

Gandhi. Bapre. You are very strong. If so look. I am holding this long stick at one end and pull the stick from my hand by holding other side if you are strong. If you fail you are beaten and Mumbai belongs to all.

( In the mean time al shiv sainiks gather and accept the challenge. There are other sainiks, Namdev and Bhola who are more vocal )

Bhola. Look All guys stand in a ring.. Quick. Arre Pandu.. dekh..

(All on lookers stand in a ring and start clapping)

Gandhi. Look. This is my stick (suddenly he swings the stick in circles at great speed and sings)

Oh guys. Look, I am Gandhi the great
I lost my life to Godse due to my sad fate
Yet I am strong like a country bull
Hey Tukaram come and this stick you should pull.

If you have guts challenge me and win
Or else run away like a broken tin
I am the father of this nation by pure luck
Yet I was shot dead like a swamp wood duck

(Patel and Nehru jump with joy and clap dancing)

(Tukaram in the mean time takes away his shirt and does some pushups and displays his muscular body to all. All appreciate his body. Gandhi in the mean time cools and brings down the stick and hands over the other end to Tukaram who bows to the ground pulls up his muscles and holds the stick)

Namdev. Now let us start. Ready one , two, three… here you go..

(Gandhi and tukaram start puling the stick the struggle is intense. Gandhi although looks weak and pale holds ground and Tukaram is found struggling to hold stick. All are wonder struck at the show and strength of Gandhi. Gandhi suddenly removes one hand from the stick.)

Gandhi. Here you are. Tukaram. Now I have removed one hand from stick. Try to pull away the stick from me if you can

Tukaram.aagh…aagh.. rrr..rrr..grrr.grrr (He perspires greatly)

Patel. Yeah..yeah.. Hip hip hurray

(Suddenly Tukaram looses grip and falls backwards)

Patel. Yahh.. we have won.. Hip Hip hurray. Victory to Indians

Nehru. But all are Indians

Patel. True

Nehru. Hip Hip hurray

(Tukaram gets up, bows to Gandhi and walks away dejected with Shiv Sainiks and on- lookers from outside Mumbai clap and dance)

Gandhi. Patel. Better we leave this place before another Tukaram walks in

Patel. True

( The trio vanish from that place singing Ramdhun)



Wednesday, February 10, 2010


Dr K Prabhakar Rao


While Maratha power was rising in India, Mughal power was rapidly declining.Maraths were great force to reckon with and they were knocking at Delhi gates. Another most important personality in Maratha political scene was Mahadaji Sindhia of Gwalior.
He was the son of Ranoji Shinde and grand son ofe son of Jankojirao Shinde, the Patil of Kanherkhed in Maharashtra. Ranoji was put in charge of the Maratha armies in Malwa by the Peshwa. He conquered much of Malwa from the Mughal Empire, and fixed his headquarters in the ancient city of Ujjain, which ultimately became the capital of the Shinde dominion, which was known after its later capital of Gwalior. Ranoji died in 1745 and left five sons. Mahadaji was trained in the art of warfare from childhood and he rose to be abrave warrior and strategist.
Between 1745 and 1761, Mahadji fought in around 50 wars, including those in Malwa, Rajputana, Bundelkhand, Brij, Doab, Rohilkhand, Delhi, Kunjpur, and in the Battle of Panipat.At the time of battle of panipat he was not the ruler of Gwalior state. Among the campaigns which Mahadji assisted, the notable ones include the ones at Chandravati Ganj (1746), Fatehabad (1746), Badi Sadri (1747), Marwar (1747), and Himat Nagar (1748).
The army of Malharrao Holkar joined the Shinde army to bring all the Rajput states under Maratha control and force them to accept Maratha suzerainty, as directed by the Peshwa Balaji Rao. Under this campaign, several city states were added to the Maratha Empire such as Medtya, Ratangarh, Lalgarh, Bikaner, Laswari, Lachhmangarh, Kumher and Deeg and the states with territory of Jaipur and Jodhpur agreed to become vassals of the Maratha Empire. All the Jat states except Bharatpur and Vijaynagar too were conquered.
Mathura which was under Mughal rule was conquered by Mahadji in 1755 where he reconstructed various old temples and established a centre for Sanskrit learning. In January 1758, Mahadji established Gwalior as his headquarters. He was emerging as a great personality in Maratha politics.
Marathas by this time had conquered almost all Mughal territory in central and north India. Mughals had thus become just the titular heads of Delhi. After the death of Mohammed Shah Rangeela the Mughal emperors became powerless. 1748-1754. Ahmad Shah. He soon had quarrels with the Rohillas, who were Afghans of [the vicinity of] Oudh. (The Rohillas, Afghan tribe, emigrated from Kabul apparently first to the north-west Himalayas, named Rohilla Himalayas settled in the late 17th century in the north-eastern part of Delhi, between the Gogra and the Ganges, in what they named Rohilkhand.) He was unable to cope with them; they forced their way into Allahabad, and the Vizier, Safdar Jang, called in the Marathas to help him against them; the Marathas repelled [the Rohillas], and in recognition of their help the Maratha leaders, Mahdaji Sindhia and Holkar, were rewarded with jagirs. Ghazi-uddin [son of] Asaf Jah's eldest son with whom the Great Mogul had had quarrel, seized him, put out his eyes, deposed him, and proclaimed one of the princes of royal blood [Emperor] under the title of Alamgir II. 1759. Ghazi-uddin ( Eldest son of Nizammulk I of Hyderabad) murdered Alamgir II, the last Great Mogul with any real power. Thus Mughal emperors just became puppets and could be blinded and murdered at will by the treacherous ministers and Wazirs.

In 1761, they wanted to expand further north and north west, where their path crossed Ahmad Shah Abdali — the ruler of Afghanistan, who had recently captured the Punjab and appointed his son as it's governor. The Marathas had gained control of a considerable part of India in the intervening period (1707–1757). In 1758, they occupied Delhi, captured Lahore and drove out Timur Shah Durrani the son and viceroy of the Afghan ruler, Ahmad Shah Abdali. This was the high-water mark of the Maratha expansion, where the boundaries of their empire extended in the north to the Indus and the Himalayas, and in the south nearly to the extremity of the peninsula. This territory was ruled through the Peshwa, who talked of placing his son Vishwasrao on the Mughal throne. However Delhi still remained under the nominal control of Mughals, key Muslim intellectuals including Shah Waliullah and other Muslim clergy in India and Punjab who were alarmed at these developments. In desperation they appealed to Ahmad Shah Abdali Durrani, the ruler of Afghanistan, to halt the threat. This was the beginning of Panipat battle and Durrani’s aim was to cut down Maratha power and save Delhi from occupation. This was serious challenge to Maratha aim of padpadshahi.

. The Mughal power in northern India had been declining since the reign of Aurangzeb, who died in 1707. In 1751–52, the Ahamdiya treaty was signed between the Marathas and Mughals, when Balaji Bajirao was the Peshwa Through this treaty, the Marathas controlled virtually the whole of India from their capital at Pune and Mughal rule was restricted only to Delhi(Mughals remained the nominal heads of Delhi).Emperor Alam gir II was murdered by ghaziuddin and he proped up grandson of Kambaks under title Jaha shah. Marathas were now straining to expand their area of control towards the Northwest of India. Ahmad Shah sacked the Mughal capital and withdrew with the booty he coveted. To counter the Afghans, Peshwa Balaji Bajirao sent Raghunathrao. He succeeded in ousting Timur Shah and his court from India and brought Lahore, Multan, Kashmir and other subahs on the Indian side of Attock under Maratha rule Thus, upon his return to Kandahar in 1757, Amidst appeals from Muslim leaders like Shah Waliullah, perturbed by Maratha influence and impending the threat to Muslim domination in North India Ahamed shaah Abdali Durrani decided to attack Marathas. He knew very well about the strength of Marathas and had to take risks. Ahmad Shah Durrani (Ahmad Shah Abdali) angered by the news from his son and his allies was unwilling to allow the Marathas spread go unchecked. By the end of 1759, Abdali with his Afghan (Pashtun) tribes with the help from the Baloch and his Rohilla ally Najib Khan had reached Lahore as well as Delhi and defeated the smaller enemy garrisons. Ahmed Shah, at this point, withdrew his army to Anupshahr, on the frontier of the Rohilla country, where he successfully convinced the Nawab of Oudh Shuja-ud-Daula to join his alliance against the Marathas.This in spite of the Marathas time and again helping and showing sympathy towards Shuja-ud-daula. The Nawab’s mother was of the opinion that he should join the Marathas. The Marathas had helped Safdarjung (father of Shuja) in defeating Rohillas in Farrukhabad.
The Marathas under Sadashivrao Bhau (referred to as the Bhau or Bhao in sources) responded to the news of the Afghans' return to North India by raising a big army, and they marched North. Bhau's force was bolstered by some Maratha forces under Holkar, Scindia, Gaikwad and Govind Pant Bundela. Raja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur, a powerful king around Agra and Delhi, also joined Bhausaheb. But he then left the alliance at Agra as the over-confident Bhau did not heed his advice (to leave soldiers' families (women and children) at Agra and not take them to the battle field), did not want his cooperation, insulted him and even tried to arrest him at Agra. Raja Suraj Mal had to leave Agra at night as the Holkars warned him of the Bhau's plan to arrest him. He had assured food supplies and logistics for the Maratha army and his withdrawal proved fatal to the Marathas. The combined army of over 100,000 regular troops (and about 500,000 women and children) captured the Mughal capital, Delhi, from an Afghan garrison in December 1759. As Delhi was reduced to ashes due to many invasions and there was an acute shortage of supplies in the Maratha camp, Bhau ordered the sacking of the already depopulated city. He is said to have planned to place his nephew and the Peshwa's son, Vishwasrao, on the Mughal throne. The Jats (with the exception of Ala Singh, the first Maharaja of Patiala), did not support the Marathas due to arrogance of their general Sadasiva Bhau and the plan of Marathas to subjugate them by imposing taxes on them. Their withdrawal from the ensuing battle was to play a crucial role in its result. The Sikhs, particularly Ala Singh of Patiala, played both sides with Ala Singh actually being granted and crowned the first Sikh Maharajah despite the Sikh holy temple being destroyed by the Afghans. Thus there is a general agreement that Sadasiva Rao Bhau although was very brave and committed to Maratha cause was haughty and his high handedness put off some important chieftains such as Raja Suraj Mal and Shujauddaula the Nawab of Oudh. Even Mughal emperor was against Marathas ad sided Ahmed Shah Abdalis. Sikhs did not help Marathas as they considered them, as occupants. Sadasiva Rao also turned down the suggestion of Holkar that Maraths should adopt Guerilla tactics. This cost Marathas very dearly in course of the battle.

The Battle of Panipat III was not fought in one day. There is a great similarity between the battle of Rakshasa Tangadi fought in 1565 between Muslim Deccani armies and Hindu armies of Vijaynagar in South led by Araveeti Rama raya. Ram Raya was about to win the battle when the Muslim generals defected to the enemy at the call of jihad and this resulted in the defeat of Hindu forces and killing of Ramaraya. In Panipat war III too. The both armies did not come to grip immediately and they waited facing each other for long and this resulted in depletion of supplies. On the other hand Marathas took thousands of women and children to the war front. Supplies suffered badly. Sadasiva Rao declared Shah Alam II as the emperor on October 10, 1760 with Shujauddaula as the vazir with a hope of weaning away them from Abdalis. This had no effect. On the othrside Abdalis placed his troops surrounding Maraths and cut off supplies for two months. This resulted in serious suffering. At last Maraths decided to fight. Abdalis used his fresh troops as reserve and the tired Maraths were vanquished not before scores of Afghan soldiers were killed. Sadasiva Rao died fighting heroically and Viswas Rao was seriously wounded and died. Nearly one laks Marathas died in this war. Mahadaji sindhia and Nana Phadnavis narrowly escaped death and retreated to Maharashtra. Having learnt about the losses Peshwa retreated to Pune and died in great anguish at the loss of men, prestige and kin.


1. Panipat war III has shattered Maratha ambition of Padpadshahi in India. They realized that Sikhs, Jats and Rajputs were not in favor of Marathas.

2. They withdrew from Punjab and concentrated on Rajasthan and Bundelkhand

3. Defeat of Marathas in this war boosted the East India Company.

4. Although Durrani came out victorious he did not occupy the throne of Delhi. He knew that he could not control Afghanistan and India at one time. He withdrew to Afghanistan as his soldiers were at the verge of mutiny and wanted to return to homeland. He appointed Najibuddaula in Delhi and left.

5. Durrani did not want Maratha power in Punjab; He had parleys with the next Peshwa Madhav Rao and came to terms in 1963.

6. Marathas did not take up any campaigns for the next 10 years

7. Although Marathas lost Panipat war they were not vanquished. There was great set back to the prestige of Maratha power. But in a span of 10 years they were again very strong.

8. Durrani reinstated Mughal emperor.


1. Marathas went in for open war instead of guerilla war recommended by Holkar.

2...Marathas like Mughal armies took a big entourage like families, women and children to the battle front. This made the supplies difficult and the strength became unwieldy. The army’s pace was greatly weakened.

3. Peshwa left the administration entirely to his nobles in the north. Thus political strategies suffered and depended on whims and fancies of the commanders and nobles

4. Marathas did not go for war immediately after reaching Panipat. This gave Abdalis ample time to plan and strengthen and amend strategies and plans.

5. Maratha commanders had no unity, Sadasiva Rao Bhau was arrogant, and this has delineated others.

6. Marathas could not get the help of Rajputs and Jats and this made difference

7. The army lacked professional training.

8. Aims such as Padpadshahi were forgotten and Marathas indulged in sacking Hindu kingdoms too. This alienated many Hindu kingdoms and Sikhs too.

Thus it is seen that although Marathas were very close to Padpadshahi, Panipat war and the defeat weakened the Maratha power greatly although they revived within 10 years. But by this time, Europeans became very strong. Although Marathas became very strong again, the wars with East India Company and infighting for the post of Peshwa weakened the Marathas and they deviated from the main aim of Padpadshahi that was coined by Baji Rao I followed up by Balaji Rao almost to its end..



DR K Prabhakaar Rao


It was necessary for Marathas to overcome all types of inner resistance in their provinces before they claimed power in Delhi. Baji Rao was still in the offing. Sambhaji (junior ) was still resisting supremacy of Sahu and was claiming himself as Chatrapathi. The family feud continued. On the other front, Nizam was a strong adversary. The relations between Marathas and Nizam were rather blow hot blow cold type and each considered other as a strong thorn in the neck. Although Marathas helped Nizam in the battle of shaker Kheda in which they killed Mubariz Khan soon the relations got strained. Baji Rao attacked Chitradurga and Sri Rangapatnam twice at the request of Sahu ( although he was not in favor)strained the relations with Nizam. In fcat Nizam desired to gain control over Karnataka and the Maratha influence in Karnataka was much disliked. Sambhaji ( junior) also felt that Maratha attacks in Karnataka were detrimental to his rule at Kolhapur and thus Sambhaji ( Junior ) and Nizam made an alliance to counter Sahu. This resulted in Sahu ordering attack on Nizam and consequently Nizam was convincingly defeated at Pakhed near Daulatabad on 28 Feb 1728 after several battles where fortunes fluctuated. Nizam sued for peace and agreed for the conditions put forward by Baji Rao. As per the agreement made at Sairon, Baji Rao was allowed to collect Chauth and sardeshmukhi in six Mughal districts and Sahu was recognized as Chatrapathi. All forts won by Nizam earlier were handed over to Sahu. Thus Nizam was disciplined and Sambhaji ( junior) was cut to size.

In 1730 Sambhaji lost a battle with sahu and graciously sahu pardoned him and at Warha made an agreement with him and recognized Sambhaji as in dependent ruler at Kolhapur and was allowed to expand his kingdom up to Rameswaram. In turnSambhaji agreed to be the vassal of Chatrapathi Sahu. Tarabai also soon relented and was released from detention at Kolhapur and she returned to Satar to live under protection of sahu. Thus family feuds in Maratha kingdom was put to rest finally. Sahu and Nizam also got into an agreement and Nizam agreed not to interfere in Maratha efforts in


Baji Rao reached his peak in 1739. He invaded Malwa, Gujrat and Bundel Khand ( 1731-36). As a result of his attacks the Mughal emperor handed over Malwa, and the areas lying in between Chambal river and Narmada to Baji Rao apart from paying 50 Lakhs rupees. Baji Rao also recovered some jagirs that were promised to him by Nizam earlier apart from countering attacks by Nasir jung son of nizaulmulk. Baji Rao was slowly engulfing North Indian territories and eclipsing Mughal rule. Unfortunately Baji Rao died at an younger age of 42 years on April 28 1740 not before mush dissatisfaction over separation from his much lady of love Masthani.


Balaji Rao the eldest son of Baji Rao was appointed in 1740 as Peshwa by Sahu much to the unhappiness of Raghuji Bhonsle ( co- son in-law of Sahu). Sahu had no sons and he never wanted Sambhaji ( junior)of Kolhapur to succeed him as Chatrapathi. He however agreed to adopt third son Mudohji of Raghuji Bhonsle. However suddenly Tarabai revealed that Ramraj her grand son was alive and Sahu believing her nominated Ramraj as his successor.
Marathas also interfered in political feuds in Karnataka and present Tamilnadu. The Maratha ruler at Tanjavur was attacked by Chandasaheb son inlaw of Dost ali nawab of Karnataka and as a result Sahu’s help was sought by the Tanjavurs Maratha king. Raghuji Bhonsle was deputed by Sahu and this campaign was deadly ( 1740-41) and Marathas were ruthless.Tiruchinappali wsa also conquered by Marathas and Muraridev Ghorpade was appointed to take care of Tiruchinappali. Raghuji Bhonsle also attacked Bihar and Orissa andconsequently Ali wardhi Khan the nawab of Bengalhanded over complete Orissa to Marathas in iew of Chauth and Sadeshmukhi powers. Although there were some misunderstanding between Raguji Bhonsle and Peshwa Balaji Rao, Sahu made reconciliation between them and in turn Raguji Bhonsle accepted Balaji Rao as Peshwa and also accepted Rama Raju as the successor to Sahu.Having achieved the above made Peshwaship hereditary and died on 1 December1749 after an eventful rule of 42 years in which he saw many ups and downs. His life was a turbulent one throughout. Sahu also inspired Peshwa Balaji Rao to struggle for Hindu padpadshahi.

Balaji Rao in 1941 occupied Malwa and obtained rights to collect Chauth and sardeshmukhi from the emperor. the Peshwa received 1 lakhs rupees as help from the Nizam for the Malwa campaign in gratitude for Peshwa’s help in countering rebellion from his son Nasir Jung earlier. Balaji Rao also made friendship with Sawai Man Singh ruler of Jodhpur to counter Nizam in future. Marathas lost control over Karnataka when Nizam succeeded in establishing his influence after attacking Karnatak and the victories and efforts of Raghuji Bhonsle were nullified. However Peshwa Balaji Rao deputed Sadasiva Rao in 1746 December and he succeeded in his campaign and was not resisted by Nizam.


Nizam I died in 1748 an Marathas also took part in the feuds of succession between Nizams son Nassir Jung and daughters son Muzaffar jung. However these two were soon killed in battles. Maraths helped Nassir jung. The English men and the French also were involved in these feuds. Salabat Jung another son of Nizam was made Nizam with the help of French general Bussey. Elevation of Salabat jung as Nizam with the help of Bussey resulted in war with Peshwa Balaji Rao. In fact Marathas supported Ghaziuddin stationed at Delhi and eldest son of Nizam I to succeed Nizam I. Unfortunately Ghaziuddin who came from Delhi to assume the post of Subedar of Deccan was killed by poisoning by his step mother( Mother of Nizam ali who later became Nizam II after deposing Salabat jung).Salabat jung attacked Pune and Marathas lost at ahmed nagar in 1751, However Bussey and Salabat withdrew to Hyderabad when Raguji Bhonsle proceeded to attack Hyderabad. Thus Bussey’s plan faildandconsequently Salabat jung and Balaji Rao made terms at Bhalki ( In Bidar ) in 1752. they agreed to attack Karnataka provinces. In 1757 Balaji Rao and sadasiv rao attacke Mysore andreceived Peshakas. However in 1759 the Mysore ruler did not pay the peshkas and was hence attacked by Gopal Rao Patwardhan and this was repulsed by Hyder Ali. Maraths and Nizam fought again in 1757 with respect to Jagirs that were promised to the Peshwa. The Battle was fought at Sindkhed. At Sakher Kheda they came to terms and Nizam again promised the grant of promised Jagir and of course it did not come through. Marathas achieved stunning victory over the Nizam in 1760 when they defeated Nizam at Udgir, Nizam sued for peace and he returned Asir Garh, Daulatabad, Burhanpur, Ahmed nagar, and Bijapur to the Peshwa apart from handing over Jagir yielding 2 Lakh rupees. Thus Maharashtrians had constant feuds with Nizam and spent great efforts, time and money to maintain their position. This took away their time and money and troops too and naturally these efforts were at the cost of their push in the north. Pad Padshahi was still far.




Dr K Prabhakar Rao

Baji Rao I was the son of Peshwa Balaji Vishwa nath the first Peshwa appointed by Chatrapathi Sahu Maharaj. His success in military campaigns is phenomenal and probably he never tasted defeat. He has great fore thought and sensed that Mughal power was crumbling. He went to Delhi along with his father during his meetings with Mughal emperor and the nobles and could grasp the political scene with great accuracy. At a very young age of 25 years he became Peshwa and this was resented by the contemporary nobles. However Chatrapathi Sahu had great confidence in the young man and was impressed by the youthful warrior and made him the Peshwa the most coveted post in Maratha empire. In subsequent years Peshwa became the supreme ruler and the Emperor of Marathas was nominal. This was due to the political scene and Sahu maharaj spent many years in Mughal captivity and he thus lacked in the required qualities for a self asserting ruler that was the hall mark till Sambhaji Maharaj and to some effect Tarabai had the qualities although Raja ram was weak who ruled after Sambhaji but died soon.
The love life of Baji Rao I with Mastani is famous. It however affected the reputation in the Hindu family of Peshwa and among orthodox community. Mastani was the daughter of Chatrasal Bundela ( 1649-1731) through a Persian Muslim mistress. Baji Rao I helped Chatrasal in a military campaign by rushing with his troops. Earlier Mughal commander Mohammed Khan Bangash of Allahabad attacked ( 1727-28) Chatrasal and captured him and imprisoned him. Baji Rao was contacted secretly by Chatrasal and Baji Rao who was on a military campaign at a close by place at once rushed to his help and defeated the Mughal General and restored Chatrasal to his throne. In gratitude Chatrasal gifted his most talented daughter Mastai to Baji Rao. She became wife to him and was brought to Pune. He constructed a beautiful palace called Shaniwar Wada in Pune and lived with her. Mastani was a skilled horse-rider, and she accompanied Baji Rao on his military campaigns. According to legends, she was skilled in spear-throwing and swordsmanship. She was also a talented dancer and singer. Both Mastani and Baji Rao's wife, Kashibai, bore sons to Baji Rao within a few months of each other. Kashibai's child died at an early age. Mastani's child was named Shamsher Bahadur. He became a great warrior true like his father.,

However, Baji Rao's love for his half-Moslem wife Mastani, and neglect of Kashibai angered his mother, Radhabai. In deference to Radhabai, Baji Rao's brother, Chimnaji Appa, tried to send Mastani into exile. Baji Rao's son, Balaji, also tried to coerce Mastani into leaving his father, but she refused. Enraged by her growing influence on Baji Rao, and Baji Rao's neglect of Kashibai, Balaji had Mastani placed under house arrest for a time, while Baji Rao was on military campaign. In April 1740, while Baji Rao was inspecting his lands at Khargon, he suddenly became ill and died. Baji Rao's wife Kashibai, his brother Chimnaji Appa, his son Balaji (Nanasaheb) ( Peshwa later on), and Mastani came to Khargon. Bajirao's mortal remains were consigned to flames on 28 April 1740, at Raver Khed on the banks of the Narmada River. Mastani died at Pabal Village near Pune, soon afterwards. Some sate that she committed Sati on the funeral pyre of Baji Rao. Kashibai took Mastani's six-year-old son Shamsher Bahadur (also named as Krushnarao) into her household and raised him as one of her own. Shamsher grew up into a formidable warrior and fought in the Third Battle of Panipat in 14/1/1761 against Ahmed Shah Abdali Durani, alongside his half-cousin and the most valiant warrior Sadasiva Rao Bhau and his half-nephew Vishwasrao, Nanasaheb's son. Shamsher Bahadur, barely 27 at the time, lost his life along with Sadasiva Rao Bhau and Vishwasrao in that battle. Shamsher Bahadur son, Ali Bahadur, ruled over Baji Rao's lands in Bundelkhand, and founded the state of Banda, Uttar Pradesh.Baji Rao beinga Brahmin, his association with a Muslim woman was most disliked by the orthodox Brahmin community and this Baji Rao into great stress and caused his early death. With this India lost a most dynamic warrior general from the land of Marathas who could surely establish Hindu padpadshahi at Delhi. But fate thought otherwise. It was not to be. Padpadshahi came very close and still it was very far away. The ways of destiny are strange. Most unexpected things take place taking history into another route. Baji Raos death and Battle of Panipat III are such incidents that put Hindu clock in reverse direction.

Thursday, February 4, 2010



Dr K Prabhakar Rao

(Gandhi, Nehru and Patel are seen sitting in a park in heavens. They are seated on benches made of gold. Some good looking women are seen playing musical instruments. Birds like Swans, pigeons and some divine birds are also seen playing in park. They are dressed as usual. Gandhi is half naked with dhoti and chappals. His long stick is lying by his side.He is looking out of place among all well dressed heavenly men )

Gandhi. Patel. To day the evening is very pleasant. I am really feeling happy to be here..laa…laaa ( Gandhi whizzles tune….. raghu pathi raghava…)

Patel. Yes Bapu. How I can disagree. You have to be right always. But Bapu,, Did’t you fin any other song for the tune?

Nehru. Come on Patel. I am sure you are not sarcastic.

Patel. Mere Bhai. Why I should be ( sings and does jig)?

Oh my brother I am not caustic
I am simple and at heart very plain
Why do you say I am sarcastic?
That causes me very great pain

Gandhi. Good poem. You picked up this talent well

Patel. At times, I get inspiration.

( In the mean time a nymph Rambha walks to Gandhi and sits beside him. Gandhi gets worried. She tries to get close to him)

Gandhi. Shh…shh… eee… ee… chee.. chee.. Please stay far

Nymph. Come on handsome. I am not that bad.

Patel. Neither Bapu.

Gandhi. Why you have come to us? What do you want?

Nymph. My dear, this is a love park. Don’t you know this?

Patel. There is no board displayed.

Nymph. This is heavens. Such boards are not seen here. By the by, when did you arrive? in heavens. You appear to be pretty old guys

Gandhi. ( Getting offended) Why do you say we are old? One gets as old as he thinks. ( sings)

Look dear nymph with lovely figure and grace
I am not in your catching and trapping race
Please go to some other useful guy
There are many such guys in this place in the sky

Nymph. Hoi. Well sung handsome. I am thrilled.

Gandhi. But I am not ready to be grilled

Gandhi. Why you are after me? Plesae leave me. Do not call me handsome. Look I am bald and look like a skeleton.

Nymph. That is fine. Bald is also beautiful ( she sings)

Although you are completely bald and bold
I like your head while it glows like gold
Your skeleton like frame is so strong
That I am sure can never go wrong

Patel. Hear..hear..Well sung dear

Gandhi. My dear Amma ( Mother). Please leave me alone

Nymph. We are mothers of none

Gandhi. Ohfo. Now what I should Patel

Patel. Bapu. Plesae recite Hanuman Chaleesa. You area ram Bhakt

Gandhi. Good Idea.

Nymph. Look . I am not a Rakshasi. Hanuman can not do any thing to me. Relax

Gandhi. Patel. What next.

Patel. Better sing ramdhun loudly

( Gandhi sings ram dhun very loudly and Nymph gets irritated)

Nymph. What type of character you are. I misjudged you.

Gandhi. Better read my book….. My experiments with truth…

Nymph. Not required. Get lost (She goes away)

Gandhi Ohfo. Good riddance finally. Patel. Better go from here.

( In the mean time some youth are seen dancing and embracing some nymphs. They come close to Gandhi. One guy whizzles at Gandhi)

Gandhi. Ohfo Shit. Patel..look. some of these guys look familiar. We have seen them. somewhere.

Patel. Yeah bapu. These guys were there at Osmania university during Telangana agitation.

Gandhi. How they are here. Plesae find out

( Patel goes to the guys dancing)

Patel hello young man, how come you are here. Strange

Youth. I am Ramesh. What is so strange? We committed suicide for Telangana. We are hence here. Don’t you know. Those who die for the nation go to heavens.

Patel. It is true in those cases where the guys go down fighting in a battle field in Hindu Dharma. In Islam also it is true

Youth. So we also died for a cause for Telangana.

Patel. You area Hindu. You committed suicide. That is a crime. You should not be here. Better go to hell

Youth. Look old man. I am in heavens. That means what I have done is correct

( In the mean time some devils ( sepoys from Yama Loka i.e Hell) arrive and catch the youth and drag them away from the dames)

Devil. Come on . Your pleasure trip to heaven is over. Now come to hell to suffer finally.

Youth. How come? You can not take away us like this. We sacrificed ourselves for Telangana.

Devil. True. Your sacrifice is correct up to identifying with Telangana agitation. For this noble cause for the state you deserve some time in heavens. So you enjoyed here. The permitted time is over. You committed suicide and that is sin in Hindu Dharma. So you have to suffer in hell for centuries

Youth ( Cries) What punishment will be there?

Devil. First we shall tie you to a pole and pluck all hair from you. Next we shall cut your external organs one by one. Then we shall saw you near stomach up to half. Next we shall pierce a lance in your back. We shall then boil you in hot oil. Then you will be thrown to dogs and wolves who will devour you. You will not die again. But you shall suffer.

Youth. Eeee…eeeeee…Jai Telangana..eee.. ( faints)

Patel. Can’t you show some mercy on this character?

Gandhi. Mere Bahi. Isko maff karo. I am Gandhi. Bapu the great.

Devil. Look old man. Do not commit the mistake of showing sympathy to this guy. That is a sin.

Gandhi. Oh sorry. Please excuse me.

( Devils drag away the youth kicking them hard and whipping and drag them to hell. The nymphs again run to Gandhi)

Nymph. Look old man. Have you seen all this show. Come on let us dance. By disappointing you will commit sin

Gandhi. If it is so, I shall oblige. I do not want to commit sin.

( Gandhi holds stick and attempts fox trot with the nymph. Patel and Nehru clap. Gandhi gets tired and gasping falls down and he is taken to the chair. He is given some potion to drink)

Gandhi. What is this?

Patel That is Som Ras. The drink of Gods. This is hot drink

Gandhi. Chee.chee.. I can not drink this. I want goat’s milk

Patel . Bapu. This is heavens, goats are not found here. You may get cow milk

Gandhi. That is fine

Patel ( Looking at Nymph) Madam. Plesae get us some milk.

( Milk is fetched and Gandhi gulps everything in one go. He gets up actively shakes himself and does jig and sings)

I am fine and strong now
I can do jig for hours in row
I am active and kicking like bull
Come catch my hand and pull

( All clap and laugh. The nymph goes away dancing)

Gandhi. Patel. Let us run from here . Or else that dame may come again

Nehru. True. Run
(The trio quickly runs away from there)