Tuesday, January 5, 2010



Dr K Prabhakar Rao

Recently Dr Mohan babu, a veteran cine actor and former MP from Telugu desam commented that Hyderabad belonged to Muslims. He said “So let us give this city to Muslims and leave”. There has been a hue and cry and court case has been thrown at his face by the citizens. The episode is part of present Telangana trouble in Andhra Pradesh in which Hyderabad has become the nerve center of the movement. Sri Mohan Babu who has many hit movies to his credit has his own style of dialogue delivery that is peculiar to him. Now he has a grown up daughter and sons who are also part of Film industry. At present Telangana movement is in peak and none is relenting. People from Andhra and Royalaseema areas too have taken up a counter movement to prevent breaking up of this large state of Andhra Pradesh. The tempers are high. Every leader has now thrown his towel in the ring or else his existence would be soon questionable. For the people of Telangana it will have to be now or never. In this scenario Mohan Babu, his son and daughter were conducting film shooting in Hyderabad. The shooting was prevented and the premises were attacked by Telangana activities. Film shooting equipment was damaged and there was some use of physical force. The artists had to flee and take shelter in closed rooms. Irked by this activity Sri Mohan Babu lost temper and burst out saying that Hyderabad is no ones dad’s property and all have the right to stay in the city and pursue activities. He also said that the film industry came to Hyderbad from Madrasat the call of former CM Marri Chenna Reddy. This activity generated great amount of bad blood in the people and tempers rose high.Soon there was chaos and BJP leaders demanded apology from Mohan Babu for hurting sentiments of people of Telangana.
The movement for Telangana state is not new and has been a continuous fire better known as Ravana kashtam ( Ravanas funeral pyre that continuously burns).It is good to know about past too. Hyderabad city is the nerve center of Andhra Pradesh even before the state was formed based on linguistic principles. Earlier it was the capital of Asifjahis Kings who ruled the State of Hyderabad and Berar from to 1948. Recalling the medieval times and the period of Bahmani sultans who ruled at Deccan in 16 th century certain facts are highly revealing. The city of Hyderabad what stands today was originally a tiny village comprising of shepherds and farmers and few artisans. There was a place called Golconda ( Golla Konda meaning shepherd hill) few KM away from the said village. There was a mud fort on the hill constructed by Kakateeya kings who ruled Telangana and major portions of Andhra Region.

Kakateeya dynasty with capital at Warangal ( orugallu formerly) is claimed to have survived for nearly thousand years although originally the rulers were the vassals of Chalukya Kings ruling at Vegi ( Now Eluru in Andhra Region). At later stage after the decline of Vegi Chalukyan, they were vassals to Kalyani Chalukya kings ruling at Kalyani now in Karnataka state. Kalyani is part of present district Bidar which was part of former Hyderabad state under Nizam . It is believed that Golla Konda was under the rule of Krishna Deva or Krishna Nayaka after the fall of Kakateeya Kingdom in 1326 at the hands of Mohammed Bin Tughlaq the ruler at Delhi.

Pratap Rudra deva of Kakateeya dynasty was a very valiant and accomplished king. However he was defeated at Warangal in 1326 at the capital by the Delhi sultan after repeated attacks and owing to internal bickering of Velama and Reddy chieftains who claimed superiority one over the other. Pratapa Rudra deva was captured and while being taken to Delhi he committed suicide by jumping in river Godavari or Narmada. There are also ballads that Prataparudra deva was rescued by his Prime minister Yougandharayana and was brought back to Warangal. Some claim that the king lost all interest in governance and soon renounced the kingdom handing over to Krishna deva. As per available records Warangal was placed under a Muslim governor after its capture and it was renamed as Sultanpur. However the chieftains of Prataparudra Deva rose in revolt and were led by Prolaya Naika who conducted guerilla warfare from Rekapalli in the region of Telangana. Kapayya Naika his cousin took over the mantle after the death of Prolaya Naika and the struggle continued for ten years. Finally Kapayya Naika defeated Malik Maqbool the governor at Warangal with combined forces of Vema Reddy, Singama Naika ( Velama Chieftain) and also from Veera Ballala from Karnataka region in the year 1336. Muslims were driven out of Telangana and Andhra regions and Kapayya Naika ruled as the successor to Kakateeya kings for 36 years with firm grip.

While Kapayya ruled at Warangal with all pomp and show, a Muslim governor titled Hasan Gangu Bahmani at Devagiri (Daulatabad now in Maharashtra state rose) in revolt against Mohd Bin Tughlaq of Delhi and established an independent kingdom and it was known as Bahmani kingdom.This kingdom survived for years from to. Kapayya Naika helped Hassan gangu by sending 1000 cavalry in the fight against Delhi sultan. But Hassan consolidated himself and attacked Kapayya. Kapayya had to make terms with the Bahmani sultan an handed over the fort of Kaulas ( Now in Nizamabad district of Telangana region) that was near the border of Bahmani kingdom. Kapayya soon had to fight Singama Naika I his Velama vassal many times who declared independence at Pillala Marri( Later shifted to Rachkonda). Kapayya was killed in a battle with Anapotha Naika son of Singama Naika I the ruler of Rachakonda. Vinayaka Deva the son of Kapayya was earlier killed by Mohammed Shah Bahmani at Velamputta. Thus rule of Kapayya Naika ended after his death and Velama kings of Rachakonda became the rulers of Telangana.

It is believed that Krishna Deva who was the scion in Telangana at a later date handed over the Golla konda Fort to Sultan Kuli who was the viceroy of Bahmani kings and made terms of peace. From then onwards Golconda was with Bahmani kings to the end. Bahmani kingdom broke up into five regional kingdoms such as Golconda ( Formerly Golla konda), Bijapur, Ahmed nagar, Berar and Bidar . Sultan Kuli was appointed as Tarafdar (Governor) of Telangana ay Gollakonda by Sultan Mohammed Shah III in the year….Sultan kuli declared independence in the year and assumed title Sultan kuli Kutubulmulk and was a successful ruler.

The Kutubshahi dynasty lasted for years when it was attacked by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in 1686 and by treachery it was captured. The last sultan Abul Hassan Kutubshah was captured and sent to live at Daulatabad in confinement where he finally died in captivity. Golconda was annexed to Mughal provinces and was kept under a Subedar (governor). Sultan Mohammed Kuli Kutub Shah (IV ruler) who built Hyderabad was the grandson of Sultan Kuli and was the son of Ibrahim Kutubshah ( III ruler) ruler at Golconda. He succeeded his elder brother Jamshed ( II ruler) who died after 7 years rule. Although Subhan Ali a child was kept on throne after Jamsheds death he was deposed by Ibrahim. Subhan Ali is not counted as ruler. There is an interesting episode about history of Hyderabad.
Prince Kuli (son of Ibrahim Kutubshah) fell in love with a village girl Baghmati who stayed at a village across the river Musi. Once Kuli crossed the river Musi in spate without caring for his life to meet his lover at the village. The sultan saw this from the palace and perturbed at his safety soon got a stone bridge constructed over Musi river that exists even today and is under use. It is called Purana pul( Old bridge). Once prince Kuli became the ruler, he married the village girl and gave her title Hyder Mahal and constructed a city across the Musi river and named it as Bhagyanagar. Later it was named as Hyderabad. The Kutubshahi ruler stayed in palaces I Hyderabad and when enemy attacked shifted to Golconda fort.

After the fall of Golconda to Mughals Hyderabad lost its glory and Mughal subedar made Aurangabad as his capital which is very near to Daulatabad fort.Qamruddin Chinkhilij Khan (1720- 1748) became the Subedar of Deccan in 1713 under the orders of Farukhsiyar the Mughal emperor in Deccan. The Mughal Empire was struggling on its deathbed with worthless rulers ascending throne one after the other after Bahadur Shah I, son of Aurangzeb who died in 1712. Sayyad Brothers played dirty politics at Delhi and were king makers. Farooqsiyar followed Zahandar Shah who was killed in 1713.Farooksiyar was murdered in 1719. Rafi-ud-daula and Rafi-ud-darajat one after the other ascended the throne and were murdered in 1719. Mohammed Shah (Rangila) ascended the throne and ruled till 1748. After the death of Faruqsiyar, Chinkhiljkhan had to go back to Malwa where he had to defend his position with arms against the Sayyad brothers. He made himself master of Deccan affairs in 1720. But was summoned back to Delhi to be a Wazir in 1722. He was fed up with palace intrigues and left for Deccan without permission. He fought Mubariz khan sent by Delhi to check him at Sakhar Kheda in Berar on 11 Oct 1724 and slew him.
He became very strong soon and Mohammed Shah the weak and wretched Mughal emperor at Delhi had to bestow on him the title of Asif Jah and recognize him as the Viceroy of South. With this, he virtually became the ruler of Deccan and independent. He ruled with absolute authority and died on 21 May 1748.Although he ruled independently he accepted lordship of Mughals.

Soon the war of succession broke in Asifjahi dynasty. Nasir Jung a son and Muzaffar Jung son of his daughter of late Nizam quarreled for the throne and were supported by the English and French. respectively. They were killed in the battles that followed the quarrel, Salabat Jung (1752-1762), another son of Nizam I was elevated as the ruler by the French and he ruled for ten years. He however is not recognized as a Nizam. He was overthrown by Nizam Ali khan another Son of late Nizam I and was crowned as Nizam II in 1762. Salabat Jung was deposed and imprisoned and after 15 months was killed in prison. With this, the dynasty settled and there were successive rulers such as Sikandar Jhah, Nasiruddaula, Afzaluddaula, Mir Mahbbob Alikhan (Pasha) and the last Nizam, Mir Osman Ali khan. Although there was a gap of 10 years after the death of Nizam I, Only Nizam Ali Khan was recognized as Nizam II. The in - between rulers such as Nasir Jung, Muzaffar Jung and Salabat Jung are not recognized as the Nizams and there was no generation gap between them.
The dynasty produced seven generations of recognized Nizams till the last Nizam 7 was deposed after Police action by the Indian Armed forces on 17 Sept 1948. Unfortunately, the last Nizam although was a good builder and a man of taste tried his best to remain independent in a changed scenario when India was granted independence on 15 Aug 1947. He was grossly misled and abetted the formation of armed Razakar force of thugs and rapists under the fundamentalist, self-styled Field Marshal Kasim Razvi. The Razakar force that was armed committed grave crimes on Hindu population in the Hyderabad State with the connivances of Prime Minister Layak Ali, Police Chief Deenyar Jung and the Hyderabad Army. It was reenacting of Ghaznavi times. Kasim Razvi even proclaimed that Asifjahi flag would be hoisted on Red fort in Delhi. There were mass murders, lootings, dacoities, innumerable mass and gang rapes of Hindu women, public killings, burning of trains with the intention of subduing and terrorizing Hindu population. Razkars killed Hindu infants by bashing them over stones. Shoibulla Khan the editor of Imroz daily in Hyderabad was brutally murdered by the Razakars as the editor opposed the atrocities of Razakars and the policy of Nizam 7. The Nizam 7 remained a mute spectator to all these inhuman happenings and destiny played its card. He finally had to pay and loose his kingship after the police action by Indian Union Govt.Hyderabd city has witness upheavels. Hyderabad State was merged with Indian Union and with this, the seven-generation rule of dynasty of Nizam I collapsed and ended Thus the great dynasty established by a valiant, able and efficient Qamruddin Chihinkhiljikhan, Nizam-ul-Mulk Asifjah in 1720 collapsed unceremoniously after police action during the rule of Mir Osman Ali khan Bahadur, Nizam-ul—Mulk Asifjah- 7 on 17 Sept 1948.
Although Aurangabad was the capital of Nizam I, it was shifted to Hyderabad during the rule of Nizam Ali Khan the Nizam II and from then onwards there was no looking back. Hyderabad slowly flourished. Many palaces were built and some gardens laid. Two reservoirs were built near Hyderabad for the controlling of Musi river by the last Nizam, Osman ali Khan. Osmania University was also built during the reign of last Nizam.The city became cosmopolitan and many north Indians from Rajastaan have settled in Hyderabad. Old city area of Hyderabad was originally encircled by strong fort walls and many gates for protection. With time and and growth of the city, these walls became irrelevant and most of the wall has been dismantled. Yet the remains if the gates and the ramparts, burz can be seen at various places in old city. Such gates are at Puranapul and Dabirpura which are still in immaculate condition displaying the past glory. Originally Hyderabad state of Nizam during the reign of the last Nizam, had distict areas such as Telangana, Marathwada and and Karnatak. Telangana had 9 districts such as Warangal, Khammammet, Karimnagar, Mahboobnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Atraf Balda ( Around Hyderabad and now called Ranga Reddy district) and Adilabad (10), Karnataka areas were districts of Gulbarga, Osmanabad, Bidar and Raichur (3). Maharashtrian areas were covered under districts Nanded, Beed, Aurangabad and Parbhani (4). ( Now Hyderabad city is also a district making 11 district in Telangana region)
The British Government while granting independence gave options to the princes in India to either join Pakistan or India or remain independent. A most all the princes in India joined accordingly while Junagarh and Hyderabad were stubborn and remained independent. Junagarh was taken over by India after a plebiscite and the ruler left for Pakistan. Hyderabad under the last Nizam had other plans. It conducted parleys with Pakistan and prepared itself for a show down with India. Razkar forces ( Militia) under Kasim Razvi ( Majlis Ittehad ul Muslimeen) were raised to terrorise Hindu population in the state and they did accordingly. At last India conducted police action on Sept 17, 1948 Hyderabad Army surrendered to India armed forces and Hyderabd was merged with Indian union. A military government was established under military governor Major General Chaudhry. Armed Telangana communist revolt was suppressed by the new government and the communists merged with main stream and took part in election process.
Nizam 7 was pardoned and made Rajpramukh of the state. The Indian leaders buckled to pseudo secularism. The souls of raped women, murdered men, women and children still hover over Hyderabad even today unable to rest in peace with Nizam and many of his coterie escaping the noose. They were not punished suitably for their crimes. Thanks to the inefficient Indian leaders.

The state of Andhra Pradesh was formed in 1956 after breaking up Hyderabad state. It was formed merging the areas of Telangana with Andhra state consisting of coastal and Royalaseema areas. Andhra state was carved out of earlier erstwhile Madras state in 1953 with Kurnool as capital.. The Maharashtrian areas of Marathwada of Hyderabad state were given to Maharashtra state while the areas of Karnatak of Marathwada in Hyderabad state were merged with Karnataka state. Hyderabad became the capital for the new born Andhra Pradesh state and has been making progress on various fronts.
Thus it is noted that the city of Hyderabad has seen great ups and downs. Before the city was established the area originally was in the province of Kakateeya kings till 1326 an then was under the provincial Naika and Velama rulers . It went over to Bahmani sultans in 1474 and then to Golconda sultans in 1518. Hyderabad city was constructed by Mohd kuli Kutubshah in 1591 and after the fall of Golconda it went over to Mughals in 1687 and then to Asifjahi kings in 1720. In 1948 it became part of India . The city can not be said to belong to Muslims although they live in sizeable numbers in old city. Sri Mohan babu the cine artist no doubt was ignorant of the history and out of frustration at the events burst out demanding handing over Hyderabad to Muslims.More over he used offensive words unbefitting him and his stature. May god bless him with more wisdom. Any how, he has been hauled up to court for hurting sentiments of people and he shall face music in the court..

1 comment:

peterparker - Servant of BHAGWAN PARASHURAMA said...

Telengana was part of VIJAYNAGARA EMPIRE, which was under BRAHMANICAL ADMINISTRATION, and again, came back into BRAHMANICAL ADMINISTRATION during maratha/peshwa rule, and after the arrival of british, went to madras province, again ruled by brahmancial lords. It was only after the formation of andhra pradesh, that Telengana was lorded by kamma, a non brahman caste. The battle of telengana always has been to free themselves from non brahmanical administration, as telengana people did not have hatred on brahmans.