Monday, September 28, 2009



Dr K Prabhakar Rao

Tamil nadu was under the rule of pandyas for long time. However Mohammed Bin Tughlaq ( Juna Khan) who invaded south India destroyed all South Indian kingdoms one after the other and in heart of Tamil land a Muslim state was established in 1323. It was made part of Muslim empire at Delhi. Devagiri( daulatabad) under Yadava kings and Warangal under Kakateeya kings were destroyed earlier by the Muslim invaders. The kingdom at Madhura was called Mabar. This kingdom existed for almost 44 years and these rulers were abetted by Bahmani sultans who ruled at Gulbarga initially. Bahmani kingdom was established by Hasan Gangu Bahmani at the closing years of Tughlaq rule on August 03, 1347. Later they shifted to Bidar ( Now in Karnataka). Bahmani sultans fought many wars with Vijayanagar rulers for establishing their superiority in south India. However Vijayanagar empire stubbornly fought them and stopped Islamization of south India.

Jaluddin asan Shah a commander of Tughlaq was the first ruler appointed by Mohd Bin Tughlaq. He however declared independence in 1333. He died in war after 5 years of rule. He was succeeded by a noble Allah uddin Udauji and he ruled for one year ( 1339-1340). He died in a battle fought with local Hindu rulers. He was struck by an arrow when he removed his steel cap to drink water during battle and died on the spot. His son in law Kutubuddin Firoz shah became the king. But he was assassinated within 40 days of his misrule.. He was succeeded by Sirajuddin who was the son in law of Jallal ud din asn shah the first ruler and former commander of Mohammed bin Tughlaq.. He assumed title Ghiatuddin Muhammed Danghan ( 1340-1345) and was a cruel ruler. He died due to plague. He killed Ballala III of hoyasala kingdom. His son in law Nasiruddin became the ruler ( 1346-47/48) assuming title Nasiruddin muhammed danghan shah. He was the most cruel person and he killed the son of his mother’s sister and married his wife. Ibn Batota the famous historian left the kingdom during his rule. The history of the kingdom is dark for all most 8 years and Sultan shamsuddin Adikshah ruled from 1356-1360. He died in a battle fought with the commander Saluva Mangu of Kumara Kampana of Vijayanagar. The book ramabhyudayam also confirms that the sultan was killed by Saluva mangu. Subsequently the nobles of the kingdom brought a relative of Bahmani sultan and was made the ruler.. The official language became Persian. Earlier it was Arabic.. Fakruddin Mubarak shah ( Probably relative of Bahmani sultan) became the ruler after Adikshah and he ruled from 1360 to 1372. Probably he was an able ruler as he resisted Vijanagar onslaught. After the death of Mubarak shah, Alauddin Sikander shah became the ruler ( 1372/73-1377/78). The dates are however are not sure. It is known that Kumara kampana invded Madura in 1372 and the sultan lost the war and took refuge at Tirupparkunram cave and the Hindu army followed him up and killed the sultan. Historian Afif claims that Bukan ( Bukka Raya) a Hindu neighboring ruler invaded Maduar and killed the Sultan. Madhura Vijayam written by Ganga devi wife of kumara Kampana narrates that Sultan sikandar Shah called kampana for a duel after his defeat and in the ensuing duel Kumara Kampana cut off the head of the sultan. It is also claimed that the goddess of Madhura appeared in a dream to Kumara Kampana and presented him the Pandya sword and blessed him to conquer Mabar kingdom and free Hindus from Muslim rule.
Muslims claim that Sikander shah laid down his life or the religion and is treated as Vali ( Holy peer) and they worship him by holding an Urs at his grave. The Muslim kingdom Mabar at last was conquered and was made part of Vijaynagar empire. Thus a thorn in the flesh of South India was removed lock stock and barrel by Kampana who became the governor for the region. However Kampana after short rule died prematurely. The history of the Mabar rule is sketchy and some information could be collected from the coins released during their rule, from the literary works Madhra Vijayam by Ganga Devi and Rihla written by Ibn Batootha.

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