He was chemist and doctorate in physical chemistry. he joined communist party's Germany KPDin 1932. He joined. Nazi resistance activities and was the founder member of European Union. He was arrested by Gestapo in 1943 and was sentenced to death. However his execution was post phoned from time to time as his colleagues requested that his research in chemical weapons needs him . Thus the execution was delayed and postponed and one day he was liberated by Allies at Bredenburg. Goerdered prison. After the war he served as Head in Kaiser William Insitute for Physical chemistry and electro chemistry. But under pressure from Americans in West Berlin he was dismissed. But continued his research till he was banned in 1950. Then he served at Humbolt university for some time but was expelled as he gave an interview to west German news paper. He was kept under house arrest at Gruenheide where he died in 1982 after prolonged lung ailment. he was politically rehabilitated after his death by the socialist unity party.